The therapeutic potential in targeting CCR5 and CXCR4 receptors in infectious and allergic pulmonary disease

Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Sep;107(3):314-28. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.02.006.


Targeting chemokines and chemokine receptors in various acute and chronic pulmonary diseases remains a vibrant area of basic and clinical research despite major hurdles including cross-species barriers, toxicity, and redundancy. In this review, we draw upon our basic research with a murine model in which innate and acquired immunity are linked in the development and maintenance of chronic asthma due to Aspergillus fumigatus. Using intact and genetically altered mice, studies have also been undertaken to elucidate safe and effective therapeutic strategies that interrupt the initiation and amplification of inflammatory and immune events that follow the intrapulmonary introduction of Aspergillus into A. fumigatus-sensitized mice. These events include resident immune cell activation, immune and inflammatory cell recruitment to the airways, changes in lung physiology, and profound changes in the architecture of the airway due to the activation of lung resident cells. The expression of 2 major chemokine receptors, namely, CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 and CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4, has been identified and their roles in innate and acquired immune events during fungal asthma have been explored. CCR5 and CXCR4 are best known for their roles in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection, but both are attractive targets in the context of overt inflammatory and remodeling responses in the lung. This avenue of research is markedly enhanced by the existence of numerous small molecule antagonists that are available to selectively target these receptors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenoviridae
  • Animals
  • Asthma / drug therapy
  • Asthma / immunology
  • Asthma / physiopathology*
  • Chemokines / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Genetic Therapy
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Ligands
  • Lung Diseases, Fungal / drug therapy
  • Lung Diseases, Fungal / immunology
  • Lung Diseases, Fungal / physiopathology*
  • Mice
  • Receptors, CCR5 / drug effects*
  • Receptors, CCR5 / physiology*
  • Receptors, CXCR4 / drug effects*
  • Receptors, CXCR4 / physiology*
  • Toll-Like Receptor 5 / biosynthesis


  • Chemokines
  • Ligands
  • Receptors, CCR5
  • Receptors, CXCR4
  • TLR5 protein, human
  • Toll-Like Receptor 5