Transthyretin-related familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is a fatal hereditary amyloidosis. Until 20 years ago, FAP was thought to be restricted to endemic occurrence in certain areas. However, owing to progress in biochemical and molecular genetic analyses, FAP is now believed to occur worldwide. As of today, reports of about 100 different points of single or double mutations, or a deletion in the transthyretin gene, have been published, and several different phenotypes of FAP have been documented, even for the same mutation in the transthyretin gene. We present herein the current clinicopathological, biochemical, molecular genetic, and epidemiological aspects of transthyretin-related FAP, and we introduce a new diagnostic procedure for the disease.