Candida biofilm: a well-designed protected environment

Med Mycol. 2005 May;43(3):191-208. doi: 10.1080/13693780500107554.


Biofilms are colonies of microbial cells encased in a self-produced organic polymeric matrix and represent a common mode of microbial growth. Microbes growing as biofilm are highly resistant to commonly used antimicrobial drugs. Recently, microbial biofilms have gained prominence because of the increase in infections related to indwelling medical devices (IMD). Candida albicans, the pathogenic fungus which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in blood stream infections, is the most common fungal pathogen isolated from patients with IMD-associated infections. Biofilm formation by Candida species is believed to contribute to invasiveness of these fungal species. We discuss experimental methods used to study fungal biofilms as well as the biology of biofilm formation by clinically relevant Candida species. Recent advances that are discussed in this review include the role of specific, differentially expressed genes and proteins, quorum sensing molecule in C. albicans biofilms, and the correlation between biofilm formation and fungal pathogenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology
  • Biofilms / drug effects
  • Biofilms / growth & development*
  • Candida albicans / chemistry
  • Candida albicans / pathogenicity
  • Candida albicans / physiology*
  • Candidiasis / microbiology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial
  • Fungal Proteins / analysis
  • Fungal Proteins / physiology
  • Gene Expression
  • Genes, Fungal / genetics
  • Humans
  • Prostheses and Implants / microbiology
  • Proteomics
  • Species Specificity
  • Virulence


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Fungal Proteins