Gene algebra from a genetic code algebraic structure

J Math Biol. 2005 Oct;51(4):431-57. doi: 10.1007/s00285-005-0332-8. Epub 2005 Jul 13.


By considering two important factors involved in the codon-anticodon interactions, the hydrogen bond number and the chemical type of bases, a codon array of the genetic code table as an increasing code scale of interaction energies of amino acids in proteins was obtained. Next, in order to consecutively obtain all codons from the codon AAC, a sum operation has been introduced in the set of codons. The group obtained over the set of codons is isomorphic to the group (Z(64), +) of the integer module 64. On the Z(64)-algebra of the set of 64(N) codon sequences of length N, gene mutations are described by means of endomorphisms f:(Z(64))(N)-->(Z(64))(N). Endomorphisms and automorphisms helped us describe the gene mutation pathways. For instance, 77.7% mutations in 749 HIV protease gene sequences correspond to unique diagonal endomorphisms of the wild type strain HXB2. In particular, most of the reported mutations that confer drug resistance to the HIV protease gene correspond to diagonal automorphisms of the wild type. What is more, in the human beta-globin gene a similar situation appears where most of the single codon mutations correspond to automorphisms. Hence, in the analyses of molecular evolution process on the DNA sequence set of length N, the Z(64)-algebra will help us explain the quantitative relationships between genes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anticodon / chemistry
  • Anticodon / genetics
  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chemistry, Physical
  • Codon / chemistry
  • Codon / genetics
  • Genetic Code*
  • Globins / genetics
  • HIV Protease / genetics
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Bonding
  • Mathematics
  • Models, Genetic*
  • Mutation
  • Recombination, Genetic
  • Thermodynamics


  • Anticodon
  • Codon
  • Globins
  • HIV Protease