Dietary restriction is known to retard the aging processes and delay the onset of age-related neoplastic diseases. The mechanisms underlying these remarkable actions of nutritional intervention are not known in spite of recently intensified research efforts. However, the last couple of years' research on dietary restriction produced strong evidence indicating that its effective antiaging actions might be related to its ability to modulate free radical damage. In the present study, DNA damage and attenuation of the damage by dietary restriction were assessed by measuring 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine 8-OH dG) in both nuclear DNA (nuDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mitDNA) fractions. The data show that substantially more damage (approximately 15 times) occurred in mitDNA compared to nuDNA. More interestingly, the DNA damage was significantly attenuated in dietarily restricted rats.