Several recent reports indicate that cholesterol might play an important role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We investigated the effects of HIV-1 infection on cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake using microarrays. HIV-1 increased gene expression of cholesterol genes in both transformed T-cell lines and primary CD4(+) T cells. Consistent with our microarray data, (14)C-labeled mevalonate and acetate incorporation was increased in HIV-1-infected cells. Our data also demonstrate that changes in cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake are only observed in the presence of functional Nef, suggesting that increased cholesterol synthesis may contribute to Nef-mediated enhancement of virion infectivity and viral replication.