Double exposure: the combined impact of the home and work environments on psychosomatic strain in Swedish women and men

Int J Health Serv. 1992;22(2):239-60. doi: 10.2190/7VW4-GE0D-WRKU-Q62V.


This study investigates the relative distribution of home responsibilities and psychosocial work environment characteristics and their associations with psychosomatic strain in a random sample of the female and male working population of Sweden (N = 12,772). Occupational variables investigated were psychological and physical demands, job control, social support, and job hazards. Home characteristics included measures of household work, number and age of children, and child care resources. A sex-pooled logistic regression analysis was performed to detect sex differences in the effects of the variables upon strain. Gender was no longer associated with psychosomatic strain after adjusting for work and home characteristics and their interactions, and while there were some similarities between the sexes with respect to the main effects of the home and work characteristics, in 52 of 60 combined effect comparisons women had a greater combined odds ratio for strain than men.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Employment*
  • Female
  • Household Work*
  • Humans
  • Life Change Events
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychophysiologic Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Sex Factors
  • Stress, Psychological*
  • Sweden / epidemiology