Esophageal cancer is the ninth most common malignancy in the world and the seventh leading cause of death in American men. Because symptoms are often intermittent and vague, patients typically present at an advanced stage, with limited survival. In operable patients, standard care includes surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy; chemotherapy and radiotherapy is the standard care for inoperable disease. Docetaxel, a taxane that promotes polymerization of tubules and inhibits depolymerization of microtubules, has shown in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects on human gastric cell lines and gastric cancer xenografts. These antitumor effects have led to the evaluation of docetaxel as a single agent and in combination with other agents and modalities in patients with esophageal cancer. Results of relevant trials are reviewed herein.