The complete primary structure of the peroxisomal flavoenzyme D-aspartate oxidase from beef kidney has been determined by analyses of the peptides obtained through fragmentation of the carboxymethylated protein with trypsin, CNBr, heptafluorobutyric acid/CNBr and Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. The protein consists of a single polypeptide of 338 residues, accounting for a M(r) of 37,305 for the apoprotein. A form of the enzyme lacking Lys-338 and therefore ending with Pro-337 has been detected. The N-terminal residue is blocked. Seven cysteines and no disulfide bridges are present. Residue 228 can be either Ile or Val. Thus, D-aspartate oxidase presents two types of heterogeneity in the polypeptide chain in addition to the one already described concerning the possible content of FAD or 6-hydroxyflavin adenine dinucleotide. Comparison of the primary structure of D-aspartate oxidase with other known sequences reveals that D-aspartate oxidase is homologous with D-amino acid oxidase (another flavo-oxidase) and does not present significant sequence similarities with any other protein, including flavoenzymes.