Background: Reports have demonstrated that nutrient supplements, in particular vitamin-B complex (Vit-B), can positively influence wound healing processes. However, limited information is available on the effects of Vit-B on periodontal wound healing.
Methods: A total of 30 patients (13 males, 17 females) presenting with generalized moderate to severe chronic periodontitis were enrolled in this study. All subjects presented > or = two teeth in the same sextant with probing depth (PD) > or =5 mm and bleeding upon probing (BOP) in need of access flap surgery (AFS). This study was a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Subjects were instructed to take one capsule a day of either Vit-B (50 mg of the following: thiamine HCl, riboflavin, niacinamide, d-calcium pantothenate, and pyridoxine HCl; 50 microg each of d-biotin and cyanocobalamin; and 400 mcg of folate) or placebo for 30 days following AFS. Clinical attachment levels (CAL) and N-benzoyl-dl-arginine-2-naphthylamide (BANA) test scores were measured at baseline and at 90 and 180 days following surgical intervention. Assessments of the healing response were also performed using BOP, gingival index (GI), and plaque index (Pl) at baseline and 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 days. The mean results of each parameter were averaged within a group. Differences between groups were analyzed by using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Results: Both groups experienced comparable levels of PD reduction following AFS (test: -1.57 +/- 0.34; control: -1.50 +/- 0.21). Changes in mean CAL were more favorable in Vit-B supplemented subjects (test: +0.41 +/- 0.12; control: -0.52 +/- 0.23; P = 0.024). Stratified data demonstrated significantly better results for the test group in both shallow (test: -0.08 +/- 0.03; control: -1.11 +/- 0.27; P = 0.032) and deep sites (test: +1.69 +/- 0.31; control: +0.74 +/- 0.23; P = 0.037). No significant differences were observed between groups regarding PI, GI, and BOP. BANA test values were significantly reduced in both groups after surgical treatment and no significant differences were noted between groups.
Conclusion: Vitamin B-complex supplement in combination with AFS resulted in statistically significant superior CAL gains when compared to placebo.