The role of two adipocytokines, adiponectin and leptin, in Taiwanese breast cancer patients remains to be determined. In this study, we analyzed the correlations between the serum levels of adiponectin and leptin and the various clinicopathological parameters in 100 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 100 controls. We found serum levels were decreased significantly for adiponectin in the breast cancer patients, in comparison to controls (Student t-test, P=0.003), while serum levels were increased significantly for leptin in the breast cancer patients in comparison to controls (Student t-test, P=0.025). Leptin/adiponectin (L/A ratio) were increased significantly in the breast cancer patients, in comparison to controls (Student t-test, P=0.009). Among the clinicopathological parameters, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2/neu, lymph node metastasis, tumor stage, and tumor grade all showed no effect on the serum levels of adiponectin and leptin. BMI was negatively and positively correlated to serum adiponectin and leptin levels, respectively (Spearman's correlation, r=-0.333 and 0.323, respectively; P<0.001 for both). Intriguingly, serum L/A ratio disclosed a positive correlation to tumor size (r=0.21, P=0.036). In summary, our results suggest that low serum adiponectin levels and high serum leptin levels are associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. Also, independent of the effect of BMI, the increased serum ratio of L/A may indicate the presence of aggressive breast cancers.