Co-morbidity of smoking in patients with psychiatric and substance use disorders

Am J Addict. 2005 Mar-Apr;14(2):106-23. doi: 10.1080/10550490590924728.


This article reviews cigarette smoking in patients with psychiatric disorders (PD) and substance use disorders (SUD). Rates of smoking are approximately 23% in the U.S. population but approximately two- to four-fold higher in patients with PD and SUD. Many remaining smokers have had repeated smoking cessation failures, possibly due to the presence of co-morbid PD and SUDs. There is modest, evidence-based support for effective treatment interventions for nicotine addiction in PD and SUD. Further research is needed to increase our understanding of nicotine addiction in PD and SUD and develop more effective treatment interventions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Comorbidity
  • Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry)
  • Forecasting
  • Humans
  • Mental Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Neurotransmitter Agents
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / genetics
  • Smoking / therapy
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Time Factors
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Neurotransmitter Agents