Identification of insulin receptor substrate 1 serine/threonine phosphorylation sites using mass spectrometry analysis: regulatory role of serine 1223

Endocrinology. 2005 Oct;146(10):4410-6. doi: 10.1210/en.2005-0260. Epub 2005 Jul 14.


Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), an intracellular substrate of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, also is heavily phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues, and several serine phosphorylation sites alter the function of IRS-1. Because of the large number of serine/threonine residues, position-by-position analysis of these potential phosphorylation sites by mutagenesis is difficult. To circumvent this, we have employed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry techniques to scan for serine and threonine residues that are phosphorylated in full-length human IRS-1 ectopically expressed in cells using an adenoviral vector. This approach revealed 12 phosphorylation sites on serine or threonine residues, 10 of which were novel sites. Seven of these sites were in proline-directed motifs, whereas five were in arginine-directed sites. Sequence inspection suggested that phosphorylation of Ser1223 might alter the interaction of IRS-1 with the protein tyrosine phosphatase Src homology domain 2 (SH2)-containing phosphatase-2 (SHP-2). Mutation of Ser1223 to alanine to prevent phosphorylation resulted in increased association of SHP-2 with IRS-1, decreased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in CHO/IR cells, and decreased insulin-stimulated association of the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase with IRS-1. This mutation had no effect on association of IRS-1 with the insulin receptor. Sequence analysis showed the Ser1223 region to be widely conserved evolutionarily. These data suggest that phosphorylation of Ser1223 dampens association of IRS-1 with SHP-2, thereby increasing net insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • CHO Cells
  • Cell Line
  • Cricetinae
  • DNA Primers
  • Genes, Reporter
  • Humans
  • Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / chemistry
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • Kidney
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
  • Peptide Fragments / chemistry
  • Phosphoproteins / chemistry
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism*
  • Phosphorylation
  • Phosphoserine / metabolism*
  • Phosphothreonine / metabolism*
  • Protein Phosphatase 2
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / chemistry
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / metabolism
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / chemistry
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Serine*


  • DNA Primers
  • IRS1 protein, human
  • Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Phosphothreonine
  • Phosphoserine
  • Serine
  • Protein Phosphatase 2
  • PTPN11 protein, human
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases