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Review
, 51 (9), 1577-86

Use of Protein:creatinine Ratio Measurements on Random Urine Samples for Prediction of Significant Proteinuria: A Systematic Review

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Review

Use of Protein:creatinine Ratio Measurements on Random Urine Samples for Prediction of Significant Proteinuria: A Systematic Review

Christopher P Price et al. Clin Chem.

Abstract

Background: Proteinuria is recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease and as a predictor of end organ damage. The reference test, a 24-h urine protein estimation, is known to be unreliable. A random urine protein:creatinine ratio has been shown to correlate with a 24-h estimation, but it is not clear whether it can be used to reliably predict the presence of significant proteinuria.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on measurement of the protein:creatinine ratio on a random urine compared with the respective 24-h protein excretion. Likelihood ratios were used to determine the ability of a random urine protein:creatinine ratio to predict the presence or absence of proteinuria.

Results: Data were extracted from 16 studies investigating proteinuria in several settings; patient groups studied were primarily those with preeclampsia or renal disease. Sensitivities and specificities for the tests ranged between 69% and 96% and 41% and 97%, respectively, whereas the positive and negative predictive values ranged between 46% and 95% and 45% and 98%, respectively. The positive likelihood ratios ranged between 1.8 and 16.5, and the negative likelihood ratios between 0.06 and 0.35. The cumulative negative likelihood ratio for 10 studies on proteinuria in preeclampsia was 0.14 (95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.24).

Conclusion: The protein:creatinine ratio on a random urine specimen provides evidence to "rule out" the presence of significant proteinuria as defined by a 24-h urine excretion measurement.

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