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, 280 (40), 34019-24

Shedding of Collagen XVII Ectodomain Depends on Plasma Membrane Microenvironment


Shedding of Collagen XVII Ectodomain Depends on Plasma Membrane Microenvironment

Elena P Zimina et al. J Biol Chem.


Collagen XVII, a hemidesmosomal component, mediates the adhesion of epidermal keratinocytes to the underlying basement membrane. It exists as a full-length transmembrane protein and a soluble ectodomain that is proteolytically released from the cell surface by sheddases of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family; TACE, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme, is the major physiological proteinase. Because both collagen XVII and the ADAMs are transmembrane proteins, their plasma membrane microenvironment can influence shedding. Lipid rafts, assemblies of sphingolipids and cholesterol within the plasma membrane, are responsible for the separation of membrane proteins and are thought to regulate shedding of cell surface proteins. In this study we analyzed the influence of the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD), which disintegrates lipid rafts, on the shedding of collagen XVII in HaCaT keratinocytes and in transfected COS-7 cells. Increasing concentrations of MbetaCD led to a dose-dependent decrease of membrane cholesterol levels and to stimulation of collagen XVII shedding. The stimulation was completely inhibited by sheddase inhibitors, and experiments with COS-7 cells co-transfected with TACE and collagen XVII demonstrated that TACE mediated the low cholesterol-dependent shedding. Co-patching analysis by double immunofluorescence staining revealed co-localization of collagen XVII with the raft resident phosphatidylinositol-linked placental alkaline phosphatase and segregation from the non-raft protein human transferrin receptor, indicating that a majority of collagen XVII molecules was incorporated into lipid rafts. These data deliver the first evidence for the role of plasma membrane lipid organization in the regulation of collagen XVII shedding and, therefore, in the regulation of keratinocyte migration and differentiation.

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