CLOCK/BMAL1 is involved in lipid metabolism via transactivation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element

J Atheroscler Thromb. 2005;12(3):169-74. doi: 10.5551/jat.12.169.


Lipid absorption and metabolism are regulated by feeding and by the circadian system. It has been suggested that the expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism is directly controlled by the clock system. This study was designed to examine whether or not the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer has transcriptional activity for genes via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor response element (PPRE). Male mice 8-12 weeks old were maintained under a 12:12 hour light-dark cycle for at least two weeks before the day of the experiment. The mRNA profiles of BMAL1 and of the PPAR target genes acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase and cellular retinol binding protein II (CRBPII) were measured in intestine. The direct effects of CLOCK/BMAL1 on the promoter activities of those three enzymes were assessed in vitro by luciferase assay. The expression of PPAR target genes changed in a cyclical manner that followed expression of BMAL1. The promoter activities of the three enzymes were increased by CLOCK/BMAL1 expression. After deletion of the PPRE from the CRBPII construct, CLOCK/BMAL1 did not affect transactivation. CLOCK/BMAL1 transactivates PPAR target genes via the PPRE.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • ARNTL Transcription Factors
  • Acyl-CoA Oxidase / genetics
  • Acyl-CoA Oxidase / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • CLOCK Proteins
  • Circadian Rhythm / physiology
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase / genetics
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase / metabolism*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism
  • Lipid Metabolism*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors / physiology*
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Retinol-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Retinol-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Retinol-Binding Proteins, Cellular
  • Trans-Activators / physiology*
  • Transcription Factors / physiology*


  • ARNTL Transcription Factors
  • Arntl protein, mouse
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Rbp2 protein, mouse
  • Retinol-Binding Proteins
  • Retinol-Binding Proteins, Cellular
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcription Factors
  • Acyl-CoA Oxidase
  • CLOCK Proteins
  • Clock protein, mouse
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase