Are maternal hypertension and small-for-gestational age risk factors for severe intraventricular hemorrhage and cystic periventricular leukomalacia? Results of the EPIPAGE cohort study

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Jul;193(1):178-84. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2004.11.057.


Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between different causes of preterm delivery (eg, maternal hypertension, small-for-gestational age [SGA], other) and cerebral damage (eg, cystic periventricular leukomalacia [c-PVL], grade III intraventricular hemorrhage [IVH], and intra-parenchymal hemorrhage [IPH]).

Study design: This study included 1902 very preterm singletons who were transferred to neonatal intensive care units in 9 French regions. We used logistic regression models to compare the risk of cerebral injury associated with maternal hypertension, SGA, and all other causes of preterm delivery.

Results: We found that the risk of c-PVL and grade III IVH was higher in infants born after preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) with short latency or idiopathic preterm labor than in infants born to hypertensive mothers. We show that SGA and antepartum maternal hemorrhage significantly increase the risk of IPH.

Conclusion: Our results show that infants born to hypertensive mothers have a lower risk of cerebral injuries than infants born following idiopathic preterm labor and PPROM because they are less exposed to prenatal infection.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage* / etiology
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage* / physiopathology
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage* / prevention & control
  • Cerebral Ventricles
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture / complications
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Small for Gestational Age*
  • Leukomalacia, Periventricular* / etiology
  • Leukomalacia, Periventricular* / pathology
  • Leukomalacia, Periventricular* / prevention & control
  • Male
  • Obstetric Labor, Premature / complications
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular*
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sex Factors
  • Uterine Hemorrhage / complications


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones