Turning signals on and off: GLUT4 traffic in the insulin-signaling highway

Physiology (Bethesda). 2005 Aug;20:271-84. doi: 10.1152/physiol.00017.2005.


Insulin stimulation of glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and adipose tissues is achieved by accelerating glucose transporter GLUT4 exocytosis from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane and minimally reducing its endocytosis. The round trip of GLUT4 is intricately regulated by diverse signaling molecules impinging on specific compartments. Here we highlight the key molecular signals that are turned on and off by insulin to accomplish this task.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Glucose Transporter Type 4
  • Humans
  • Insulin / metabolism*
  • Monosaccharide Transport Proteins / metabolism*
  • Muscle Proteins / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*


  • Glucose Transporter Type 4
  • Insulin
  • Monosaccharide Transport Proteins
  • Muscle Proteins
  • SLC2A4 protein, human
  • Glucose