In mammals, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections initially intermingle and then segregate into a stereotyped pattern of eye-specific layers in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). Here we found that in mice deficient for ephrin-A2, ephrin-A3 and ephrin-A5, eye-specific inputs segregated but the shape and location of eye-specific layers were profoundly disrupted. In contrast, mice that lacked correlated retinal activity did not segregate eye-specific inputs. Inhibition of correlated neural activity in ephrin mutants led to overlapping retinal projections that were located in inappropriate regions of the dLGN. Thus, ephrin-As and neural activity act together to control patterning of eye-specific retinogeniculate layers.