BAFF-receptor (BAFF-R) is required for the successful maturation and survival of B-cells. We developed an anti-human BAFF-R monoclonal antibody (mAb), 8 A 7. The reactivity of 8 A 7 in normal and neoplastic tissue was examined by performing immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded sections. 8 A 7 reacted with lymphocytes in the mantle and marginal zones, but not with lymphocytes in the interfollicular area. Lymphocytes in the germinal centers were found to be negative or occasionally weakly positive for 8 A 7. BAFF-R expression was found only in B-cell lymphoma (44/80, positive cases/examined cases): B-lymphoblastic lymphoma 0/3, B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma 4/4, mantle cell lymphoma 9/11, follicular lymphoma 10/14, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) 11/25, marginal zone B-cell lymphoma 8/10, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma 2/2, plasma cell myeloma 0/2, and Burkitt lymphoma 0/9, but not in T/NK cell lymphomas (0/19) or Hodgkin lymphoma (0/10). BAFF-R was expressed in most low-grade B-cell neoplasms and a small number of DLBCL, suggesting that BAFF-R may play an important role in the proliferation of neoplastic lymphoid cells. Thus, the mAb is very useful for further understanding of both healthy B-cell biology and its pathogenic neoplasms.