Background: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) clinical practice guideline emphasizes the appropriate diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school-aged children. Although previous studies have shown wide variation in diagnostic practices for ADHD, few recent studies have examined nationally representative samples.
Objective: To describe practice patterns of primary care physicians evaluating school-aged children for ADHD in the late 1990s and compare the patterns with subsequently published AAP guidelines.
Methods: We surveyed a national sample of 2000 primary care pediatricians and family physicians. Of the 1076 returned surveys, 861 (43%) met data quality criteria and were included in the analysis. We tabulated frequencies for each item and used a chi2 test to examine relationships between survey items and physician characteristics.
Results: Primary care physicians most commonly reported conducting 1-2 new evaluations for ADHD per month, the majority spending 15-45 minutes and at least 2 office visits to confirm a diagnosis of ADHD. Although 58% of physicians used formal diagnostic criteria, only 28% reported using criteria according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Eighty-three percent reported using any teacher or school information such as report cards and rating scales. Approximately 70% used ADHD-specific rating scales, and 60% used global behavior scales. A quarter of respondents obtained laboratory tests such as hematocrit, lead, and thyroid function profile. Most physicians reported routinely assessing for coexisting conditions, ranging from 74% for tic disorders to 91% for depression and conduct disorder.
Conclusions: Before the publication of AAP guidelines, primary care physicians' evaluation practices for school-aged children with ADHD varied widely, especially with respect to use of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnostic criteria and inappropriate diagnostic tests.