The identification of tumor-associated/-specific antigens and an increased understanding of the ways in which antigens are processed and presented has led to a revived interest in cancer vaccines as a therapeutic strategy. BLP25 liposome (L-BLP25) vaccine is a cancer vaccine that targets the exposed core peptide of the MUC1 tumor-associated antigen. Studies in advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer demonstrate that L-BLP25 vaccine has the potential to extend the survival of patients with Stage IIIB locoregional non-small cell lung cancer and maintain quality of life for longer. L-BLP25 vaccine also shows promise for prostate cancer patients, having the potential to prolong prostate-specific antigen doubling time in men with biochemical failure post prostatectomy. These clinically meaningful results with a relatively nontoxic therapeutic vaccine are very encouraging and suggest potential for L-BLP25 to fulfill an unmet medical need.