Effect of naproxen, a non-selective cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, on pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005 Jul;32(7):574-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2005.04233.x.


1. Epilepsy is one of the major neurological disorders of the brain, affecting approximately 0.5-1.0% of the population worldwide. Various neurotransmitter abnormalities, especially of GABA and glutamate, have been reported to play a key role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. 2. Cyclo-oxygenase (COX) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of prostaglandins and, as such, is a key target for many anti-inflammatory drugs. Cyclo-oxygenase has been reported to play a significant role in neurodegeneration. Recent studies have reported that COX plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. 3. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible role of COX and the effect of COX inhibitors in epilepsy. 4. Kindling is a chronic model of epilepsy. In the present study, kindling was induced in mice by chronic administration of a subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 40 mg/kg) on every other day for a period of 15 days. Naproxen was administered daily 45 min before PTZ or vehicle. The kindling score was recorded after PTZ administration. Seizure severity was measured according to a prevalidated scoring scale. Biochemical estimations were performed immediately after recording behavioural parameters on the 16th day of PTZ treatment. 5. Chronic treatment with PTZ significantly induced kindling in mice. Pretreatment with the non-selective COX inhibitor naproxen (7 and 14 mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant protection against PTZ-induced kindling in mice. Biochemical analysis revealed that chronic treatment with PTZ significantly increased lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels (NO levels), but decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in brain homogenates. 6. In conclusion, the results of the present study strongly suggest that COX plays an important role in the pathophysiology of PTZ-induced kindling in mice and that COX inhibitors could be a useful neuroprotective strategy for the treatment of epilepsy.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal / drug effects
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Hot Temperature
  • Hyperalgesia / drug therapy
  • Hyperalgesia / etiology
  • Immersion / adverse effects
  • Injections, Intraperitoneal
  • Kindling, Neurologic / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Motor Activity / drug effects
  • Naproxen / administration & dosage
  • Naproxen / pharmacology*
  • Nitrites / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Pain Measurement / methods
  • Pentylenetetrazole / administration & dosage
  • Pentylenetetrazole / toxicity
  • Peroxidase / metabolism


  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • Nitrites
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Naproxen
  • Peroxidase
  • Glutathione
  • Pentylenetetrazole