The dynamic modification of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins with O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a regulatory post-translational modification that is rapidly responsive to morphogens, hormones, nutrients, and cellular stress. Here we show that O-GlcNAc is an important regulator of the cell cycle. Increased O-GlcNAc (pharmacologically or genetically) results in growth defects linked to delays in G2/M progression, altered mitotic phosphorylation, and cyclin expression. Overexpression of O-GlcNAcase, the enzyme that removes O-GlcNAc, induces a mitotic exit phenotype accompanied by a delay in mitotic phosphorylation, altered cyclin expression, and pronounced disruption in nuclear organization. Overexpression of the O-GlcNAc transferase, the enzyme that adds O-GlcNAc, results in a polyploid phenotype with faulty cytokinesis. Notably, O-GlcNAc transferase is concentrated at the mitotic spindle and midbody at M phase. These data suggest that dynamic O-GlcNAc processing is a pivotal regulatory component of the cell cycle, controlling cell cycle progression by regulating mitotic phosphorylation, cyclin expression, and cell division.