The epidemiology of invasive fungal infection is evolving. Yeasts other than Candida albicans and molds other than Aspergillus fumigatus have emerged as significant causes of invasive mycoses in severely immunocompromised patients. Although, in some instances, these changes may be related to medical interventions, such as the use of antifungal agents in prophylaxis, in the majority of cases, they seem to be a consequence of changes in the host, such as more-severe immunosuppression or different types of immunosuppression impacting both risk periods and the infections that occur. These factors have altered the epidemiology of infection in organ transplant recipients, premature newborns, and critically ill patients. This review discusses the epidemiology of some fungal infections that have emerged in the past few years, with an emphasis on the potential factors associated with their emergence and on practical implications of these epidemiological changes.