Procyanidin trimers to pentamers fractionated from apple inhibit melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells

J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jul 27;53(15):6105-11. doi: 10.1021/jf050418m.


The effects of apple polyphenols on melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells were investigated. The inhibitory effect of apple polyphenols was stronger than that of arbutin or kojic acid. Three polyphenol fractions (phenolic acid derivatives, procyanidins and other flavonoids) were isolated, and the procyanidins were fractionated according to the degree of polymerization using normal-phase chromatography. The procyanidin trimer-to-pentamer fractions were found to have the most pronounced effect on melanogenesis. Furthermore, each procyanidin fraction inhibited mushroom tyrosinase. No correlation between the degree of procyanidin polymerization and tyrosinase inhibitory activity was observed. Nevertheless, these observations suggest that procyanidins are effective inhibitors of tyrosinase.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Flavonoids / pharmacology
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Malus / chemistry*
  • Melanins / biosynthesis*
  • Melanoma, Experimental
  • Mice
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase / metabolism
  • Phenols / pharmacology
  • Polymers / chemistry
  • Polyphenols
  • Proanthocyanidins / chemistry*
  • Proanthocyanidins / pharmacology*


  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Flavonoids
  • Melanins
  • Phenols
  • Polymers
  • Polyphenols
  • Proanthocyanidins
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase