Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver metastases.
Methods and materials: A multicenter Phase I clinical trial was conducted. Eligible patients had one to three liver metastases, tumor diameter <6 cm, and adequate liver function. The first cohort received 36 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) in three fractions (F). Subsequent cohorts received higher doses up to a chosen maximum of 60 Gy/3F. At least 700 mL of normal liver had to receive a total dose <15 Gy. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) included acute Grade 3 liver or intestinal toxicity or any acute Grade 4 toxicity. The MTD was exceeded if 2/6 patients in a cohort experienced DLT.
Results: Eighteen patients were enrolled (10 male, 8 female): median age, 55 years (range, 26-83 years); most common primary site, colorectal (6 patients); median aggregate gross tumor volume, 18 ml (range, 3-98 ml). Four patients had multiple tumors. No patient experienced a DLT, and dose was escalated to 60 Gy/3F without reaching MTD.
Conclusions: Biologically potent doses of SBRT are well tolerated in patients with limited liver metastases. Results of this study form the basis for an ongoing Phase II SBRT study of 60 Gy over three fractions for liver metastases.