Lead and other trace metals in preeclampsia: a case-control study in Tehran, Iran

Environ Res. 2006 Feb;100(2):268-75. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2005.05.005. Epub 2005 Jul 18.


To assess the effects of environmental exposures to trace metals on the incidence of preeclampsia, concentrations of lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), manganese (Mn), mercury, cadmium, cobalt and zinc in umbilical cord blood (UCB) and mother whole blood (MWB) were measured in 396 postpartum women without occupational exposure to metals in Tehran, Iran, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mother's ages ranged from 15 to 49 (mean 27) years. Preeclampsia was diagnosed in 31 subjects (7.8%). Levels of Pb, Sb and Mn in UCB were significantly higher in preeclampsia cases [mean+/-SD of 4.30+/-2.49 microg/dl, 4.16+/-2.73 and 46.87+/-15.03 microg/l, respectively] than in controls [3.52+/-2.09 microg/dl, 3.17+/-2.68 and 40.32+/-15.19 microg/l, respectively] (P<0.05). The logistic regression analysis revealed that one unit increase in the common logarithms of UCB concentration of Pb, Sb or Mn led to increase in the risk of preeclampsia several-fold; unit risks (95% CI) were 12.96 (1.57-107.03), 6.11 (1.11-33.53) and 34.2 (1.81-648.04) for Pb, Sb and Mn, respectively (P<0.05). These findings suggest that environmental exposure to Pb, Sb and Mn may increase the risk of preeclampsia in women without occupational exposure; levels of metals in UCB to be sensitive indicators of female reproductive toxicity as compared with those in mother MWB. Further studies are necessary to confirm these findings, especially on Sb and Mn.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Air Pollutants / blood*
  • Air Pollutants / poisoning*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Fetal Blood / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Inhalation Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Iran
  • Lead / blood*
  • Lead Poisoning / blood
  • Metals, Heavy / blood
  • Middle Aged
  • Pre-Eclampsia / blood*
  • Pre-Eclampsia / chemically induced*
  • Pregnancy
  • Statistics, Nonparametric


  • Air Pollutants
  • Metals, Heavy
  • Lead