Objective: Adiponectin inhibits vascular inflammation and increases IL-10 mRNA expression in human macrophages. Thus, we investigated the possible relationship between plasma adiponectin and IL-10 levels and the effects of a diet-induced moderate weight loss on both cytokines.
Patients and study design: Plasma adiponectin and IL-10 levels were analyzed in 64 android [body mass index (BMI), > 28 kg/m2; waist to hip ratio (WHR), > or = 0.86] and 20 gynoid [BMI, > 28 kg/m2; WHR, < 0.86] obese healthy women. Android obese women (49 +/- 14 yr) had a mean BMI of 37.1 +/- 5.3 kg/m2, similar to that of gynoid obese women (49 +/- 11 yr; BMI, 33.4 +/- 2.6 kg/m2). Twenty nonobese control women (46 +/- 11 yr; BMI, 25.2 +/- 2.2 kg/m2) were also studied. In 15 android obese women, measurements were repeated after a 12-wk diet period (1200 kcal/d).
Results: Median adiponectin [5.2 (range, 3.3-7.8) vs. 12.1 (9.7-13.9) vs. 15.0 (12.6-18.2) microg/ml; P < 0.0001] and IL-10 [1.8 (1.2-3.3) vs. 3.5 (2.9-4.3) and vs. 4.1 (3.5-4.8) pg/ml; P < 0.0001] levels were lower in android vs. gynoid vs. nonobese women. Among android obese women, low adiponectin levels were independently related (P < 0.0001) to decreased IL-10 levels, independently of BMI, WHR, or insulin resistance. No significant change in either median adiponectin or IL-10 levels was observed after body weight reduction (8 +/- 4 kg; P < 0.01), although percent changes in adiponectin paralleled those in IL-10 (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: Android obesity is associated with a concomitant reduction of IL-10 and adiponectin levels. However, the antiinflammatory status of obesity might require prolonged periods of energy-restricted diets to revert to normal.