We treated a 54-year-old man with large cell carcinoma of the left upper lobe invading the esophagus and the left subclavian artery (SCA) from its origin. The tumor was completely resected by lobectomy under cardiopulmonary bypass. The left SCA was dissected at the aortic arch and reconstructed with a graft. The muscle layer of the esophagus was resected, followed by patching with an intercostal muscle flap. The pathological tumor stage was T4N0M0. The tumor recurred at two months after surgery in the neck lymph nodes and brain. Both sites were treated with radiation therapy and the patient is now alive without recurrence at 26 months after surgery. Lung cancer invading the great vessels and other mediastinal structures can be cured or long survival can be obtained by extended resection and postoperative adjuvant therapy.