We have designed a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay to simultaneously screen all 79 DMD gene exons for deletions and duplications in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) patients. We validated the assay by screening 123 unrelated patients from Serbia and Montenegro already screened using multiplex PCR. MLPA screening confirmed the presence of all previously detected deletions. In addition, we detected seven new deletions, nine duplications, one point mutation, and we were able to precisely determine the extent of all rearrangements. To facilitate MLPA-based screening in laboratories lacking specific equipment, we designed the assay such that it can also be performed using agarose gel analysis and ethidium bromide staining. The MLPA assay as described provides a simple and cheap method for deletion and duplication screening in DMD/BMD patients. The assay outperforms the Beggs and Chamberlain multiplex-PCR test, and should be considered as the method of choice for an initial DNA analysis of DMD/BMD patients.