We previously reported that fatty alcohol phosphates (FAP) represent a minimal pharmacophore required to interact with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors. To improve the activity of the first-generation saturated FAP series, a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study was carried out that includes modifications to the headgroup and alkyl side chain of the FAP pharmacophore. A series of unsaturated (C(10)-C(18)) FAP, headgroup-modified hydrolytically stable saturated (C(10)-C(18)) alkyl phosphonates, and saturated and unsaturated (C(10)-C(18)) thiophosphate analogues were synthesized and evaluated for activity in RH7777 cells transfected with individual LPA(1)(-3) receptors, in PC-3 cells and in human platelets that endogenously express all three isoforms. In this series we identified several LPA(1)- and LPA(3)-selective antagonists with IC(50) values in the nanomolar range. Oleoyl-thiophosphate (15g) was shown to be a pan-agonist, whereas tetradecyl-phosphonate (16c) was identified as a pan-antagonist. These compounds were also tested for the ability to activate the transcription factor PPARgamma, an intracellular receptor for LPA, in CV1 cells transfected with the PPRE-Acox-Rluc reporter gene. All the FAP tested, along with the previously reported LPA GPCR antagonists dioctanoyl glycerol pyrophosphate (2), Ki16425 (6), and the agonist OMPT (3), were activators of PPARgamma. The pan-agonist oleoyl-thiophosphate (15g) and pan-antagonist tetradecyl-phosphonate (16c) mimicked LPA in inhibiting autotaxin, a secreted lysophospholipase D that produces LPA in biological fluids.