Vitamin C (or ascorbic acid) is regarded as the most important water-soluble antioxidant in human plasma and mammalian cells which have mechanisms to recycle and accumulate it against a concentration gradient, suggesting that the vitamin might also have important intracellular functions. In this review we summarize evidence from human trials that have attempted an association between vitamin C supplementation and an effect on biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage. Most studies reviewed herein showed either a vitamin C-mediated reduction in oxidative DNA damage or a null effect, whereas only a few studies showed an increase in specific base lesions. We also address the possible beneficial effects of vitamin C supplementation for the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Finally, we discuss the contribution of cell culture studies to our understanding of the mode of action of vitamin C and we review recent evidence that vitamin C is able to modulate gene expression and cellular function, with a particular interest in cell differentiation.