Studies on absorption and elimination of dietary maillard reaction products

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Jun;1043:474-81. doi: 10.1196/annals.1333.054.


A nine-day dietary study involving 18 healthy volunteers was performed in order to investigate the influence of nutrition on the urinary excretion of the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) fructoselysine, pyrraline, and pentosidine. From day two through day eight, most types of Maillard product-containing food had to be avoided. On day five, participants were divided into four groups, three of them receiving a test meal (pretzel sticks, brewed coffee, or custard) containing defined amounts of MRPs. The fourth group served as a control. Urine samples taken over a 24-h period were analyzed for MRPs using chromatographic means. As a result of the MRP-free diet, urinary excretion of free pyrraline and fructoselysine, which was calculated from furosine analysis, were lowered about 90%. Excretion of pentosidine decreased about 40%. Consumption of pretzel sticks and coffee on day five resulted in increased amounts of pyrraline and pentosidine in urine samples on days five to seven. Related to the supplied amounts of pyrraline, about 50% were recovered in the urine samples after ingestion of the pretzel sticks. For pentosidine, 60% of the ingested free derivative from coffee brew and 2% of the peptide-bound amino acid ingested with the bakery product were recovered in the urine samples, indicating a better bioavailability for free pentosidine compared to the protein-bound form. For peptide-bound Amadori products, no influence on the excretion was observed after ingestion of the test foods, indicating degradation in the intestine or plasma to yet-unknown metabolites. In conclusion, differences concerning the excretion rate of individual MRPs point to individual resorption and metabolic pathways. These results are of importance for the discussion of a possible (patho)physiological role of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs).

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Diet*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Absorption*
  • Lysine / analogs & derivatives
  • Lysine / urine
  • Maillard Reaction
  • Male
  • Reference Values


  • furosine
  • Lysine