Despite recent advances in understanding the immunopathogenesis of oral lichen planus (LP), the initial triggers of lesion formation and the essential pathogenic pathways are unknown. It is therefore not surprising that the clinical management of oral LP poses considerable difficulties to the dermatologist and the oral physician. A consensus meeting was held in France in March 2003 to discuss the most controversial aspects of oral LP. Part 1 of the meeting report focused on (1) the relationship between oral LP and viral infection, with special emphasis on hepatitis C virus (HCV), and (2) oral LP pathogenesis, in particular the immune mechanisms resulting in lymphocyte infiltration and keratinocyte apoptosis. Part 2 focuses on patient management and therapeutic approaches and includes discussion on malignant transformation of oral LP.