In this study, we isolated and pharmacologically characterized the first alpha-like toxin from the venom of the scarcely studied Iranian scorpion Odonthobuthus doriae. The toxin was termed OD1 and its primary sequence was determined: GVRDAYIADDKNCVYTCASNGYCNTECTKNGAESGYCQWIGRYGNACWCIKLPDEVPIRIPGKCR. Using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique, the pharmacological effects of OD1 were studied on three cloned voltage-gated Na+ channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes (Na(v)1.2/beta1, Na(v)1.5/beta1, para/tipE). The inactivation process of the insect channel, para/tipE, was severely hampered by 200 nM of OD1 (EC50 = 80+/-14 nM) while Na(v)1.2/beta1 still was not affected at concentrations up to 5 microM. Na(v)1.5/beta1 was influenced at micromolar concentrations.