The pathogenesis of type II diabetes is associated with the aggregation of the 37-residue human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) into cytotoxic beta sheet aggregates and fibrils. We have recently shown that introduction of two N-methyl rests in the beta sheet- and amyloid-core-containing sequence hIAPP(22-27), or NFGAIL converted this amyloidogenic and cytotoxic sequence into nonamyloidogenic and noncytotoxic NF(N-Me)GA(N-Me)IL. Here, we show that NF(N-Me)GA(N-Me)IL is able to bind with high-affinity full-length hIAPP and to inhibit its fibrillogenesis. NF(N-Me)GA(N-Me)IL also inhibits hIAPP-mediated apoptotic beta cell death. By contrast, unmodified NFGAIL does not inhibit hIAPP amyloidogenesis and cytotoxicity, suggesting that N-methylation conferred on NFGAIL the properties of NF(N-Me)GA(N-Me)IL. These results support the concept that rational N-methylation of hIAPP amyloid-core sequences may be a valuable strategy to design pancreatic-amyloid diagnostics and therapeutics for type II diabetes.