Okadaic acid, a causative toxin of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis from Hong Kong fish culture zones: method development and monitoring

Mar Pollut Bull. 2005;51(8-12):1010-7. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2005.06.037. Epub 2005 Jul 22.


Green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from seven fish culture zones (FCZs) in Hong Kong and analyzed for okadaic acid (OA). A conventional HPLC method was modified by incorporating a proteinase K digestion step. Results suggest that a higher recovery (2.5 times higher) of OA was obtained from spiked samples after the addition of 1.08 mg proteinase K in comparison with samples incubated without the proteolytic enzyme. For the hepatopancreas (HP) of individual field-collected mussels, the additional digestion step can enhance OA extraction by 3.1 times. Spatial and temporal variations in OA concentrations in the mussels from various FCZs were investigated. The highest concentration of OA in mussel HP samples was 1164.9 ng/g HP wet wt. With respect to OA concentrations in whole mussel tissues from seven sites and four seasonal samplings, the concentrations were between 70.0 and 131.0 ng/g wet wt., which did not exceed the generally recognized international regulatory criteria (>200 ng/g) for OA.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bivalvia / chemistry*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Endopeptidase K / chemistry
  • Environmental Monitoring / statistics & numerical data*
  • Geography
  • Hepatopancreas / chemistry
  • Hong Kong
  • Marine Toxins / analysis*
  • Okadaic Acid / analysis*
  • Seasons


  • Marine Toxins
  • Okadaic Acid
  • Endopeptidase K