Despite having access to embryonic stem cells, many laboratories choose to study adult stem cells, not because of philosophical reasons but because of the practical aspects and day-to-day progress necessary for developing cellular therapeutics. There is certainly the ethical desire and responsibility to provide patients with therapies where few options exist. Multipotential cells have been isolated from adult tissues in many laboratories, characterized and their multipotentiality examined. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be isolated from several tissues but easily accessible BM seems to be the most common source. These adult stem cells may not be as 'powerful' or diverse as embryonic stem cells may one day become, but at present they offer many advantages for developing cellular therapeutics: ease of isolation, expansion potential, stable phenotype, shippability, and compatibility with different delivery methods and formulations. Their potential use as cellular therapeutics has prompted the investigation of interactions of allogeneic MSC with the immune response. The great importance of cardiovascular medicine has demanded that MSC also be tested in this discipline. We believe MSC continue to provide a substantial scientific and therapeutic opportunity, and have reviewed some of the recent developments in the field.