We hypothesized that the six-monthly application of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) can arrest the development of caries in the deciduous dentition of six-year-old schoolchildren and prevent caries in their first permanent molars. A prospective controlled clinical trial was conducted on the efficacy of a 38% SDF solution for caries reduction. Four hundred and twenty-five six-year-old children were divided into two groups: One group received SDF solution in primary canines and molars and first permanent molars every 6 mos for 36 mos. The second group served as controls. The 36-month follow-up was completed by 373 children. The mean number of new decayed surfaces appearing in primary teeth during the study was 0.29 in the SDF group vs. 1.43 in controls. The mean of new decayed surfaces in first permanent molars was 0.37 in the SDF group vs. 1.06 in controls. The SDF solution was found to be effective for caries reduction in primary teeth and first permanent molars in schoolchildren.