One of the most commonly observed adverse effects of cyclosporin A (CsA) is the development of gingival overgrowth (GO). Fibroblasts are involved in GO, but the question why only a percentage of patients undergoing CsA treatment shows this side-effect remains unanswered. In a previous study, CsA has been demonstrated to induce over-expression of phospholipase C (PLC) beta(1) in fibroblasts of patients with clinical GO, in cells from both enlarged and clinically healthy gingival sites. In this work, we assessed the expression of PLCbeta isoforms to investigate whether the exaggerated fibroblast response to CsA related to increased PLCbeta(1) expression could also be detected in CsA-treated patients without clinical signs of GO. Our results support the hypothesis of a multi-factorial origin of gingival overgrowth, including specific changes within the gingival tissues orchestrating fibroblastic hyper-responsiveness as a consequence of a long-term in vivo exposure to cyclosporin A.