Blood is divided in two compartments, namely, plasma and cells. The latter contain red blood cells, leukocytes, and platelets. From a descriptive medical discipline, hematology has evolved towards a pioneering discipline where molecular biology has permitted the development of prognostic and diagnostic indicators for disease. The recent advance in MS and protein separation now allows similar progress in the analysis of proteins. Proteomics offers great promise for the study of proteins in plasma/serum, indeed a number of proteomics databases for plasma/serum have been established. This is a very complex body fluid containing lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins, nucleic acids, hormones, and proteins. About 1500 different proteins have recently been identified, and a number of potential new markers of diseases have been characterized. Here, examples of the enormous promise of plasma/serum proteomic analysis for diagnostic/prognostic markers and information on disease mechanism are given. Within the blood are also a large number of different blood cell types that potentially hold similar information. Proteomics of red blood cells, until now, has not improved our knowledge of these cells, in contrast to the major progresses achieved while studying platelets and leukocytes. In the future, proteomics will change several aspects of hematology.