Unravelling Cryptosporidium and Giardia Epidemiology

Trends Parasitol. 2005 Sep;21(9):430-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2005.06.013.


Molecular biology has provided insights into the taxonomy and epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, which are major causes of protozoal diarrhoea in humans worldwide. For both genera, previously unrecognized differences in disease, symptomatology, zoonotic potential, risk factors and environmental contamination have been identified using molecular tools that are appropriate for species, genotype and subtype analysis. In this article, to improve understanding of the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, we consider specific requirements for the development of more-effective molecular identification and genotyping systems that should be applicable to both clinical and environmental samples.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cryptosporidiosis / epidemiology*
  • Cryptosporidiosis / parasitology
  • Cryptosporidiosis / transmission
  • Cryptosporidium / classification*
  • Cryptosporidium / genetics
  • Diarrhea / parasitology
  • Giardia / classification*
  • Giardia / genetics
  • Giardiasis / epidemiology*
  • Giardiasis / parasitology
  • Giardiasis / transmission
  • Host-Parasite Interactions
  • Humans
  • Molecular Epidemiology
  • Phylogeny
  • Species Specificity
  • Zoonoses