Dietary advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) have been linked to insulin resistance in db/db(++) mice. To test whether dietary AGEs play a role in the progression of insulin resistance in normal mice fed high-fat diets, normal C57/BL6 mice were randomly assigned to high-fat diets (35% g fat), either high (HAGE-HF group; 995.4 units/mg AGE) or low (by 2.4-fold LAGE-HF group; 329.6 units/mg AGE) in AGE content for 6 months. Age-matched C57/BL6 and db/db(++) mice fed regular diet (5% g fat, 117.4 units/mg AGE) served as controls. After 6 months, 75% of HAGE-HF mice were diabetic and exhibited higher body weight (P < 0.001), fasting glucose (P < 0.001), insulin (P < 0.001), and serum AGEs (P < 0.01) than control mice, while none of the LAGE-HF mice were diabetic despite a similar rise in body weight and plasma lipids. The HAGE-HF group displayed markedly impaired glucose and insulin responses during glucose tolerance tests and euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamps and altered pancreatic islet structure and function compared with those of LAGE-HF mice, in which findings resembled those of control mice. The HAGE-HF group had more visceral fat (by two- and fourfold) and more AGE-modified fat (by two- and fivefold) than LAGE-HF and control mice, respectively. In the HAGE-HF group, plasma 8-isoprostane was higher (P < 0.01) and adiponectin lower (P < 0.001) than control mice, while in the LAGE-HF group, these were more modestly affected (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes during prolonged high-fat feeding are linked to the excess AGEs/advanced lipoxidation end products inherent in fatty diets.