Risk factors for diabetes insipidus in langerhans cell histiocytosis

Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 Feb;46(2):228-33. doi: 10.1002/pbc.20425.


Background: Diabetes insipidus (DI) is the most frequent central nervous system (CNS)-related permanent consequence in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), which mostly requires life-long hormone replacement therapy. In an attempt to define the population at risk for DI, 1,741 patients with LCH registered on the trials DALHX 83 and DALHX 90, LCH I and LCH II were studied.

Results: Overall 212 of 1,741 patients (12%) was reported to have DI. In 102 of 1,741 patients (6%) DI was present at diagnosis of LCH. One thousand one hundred eighty three of 1,539 patients without DI at diagnosis had follow up information. One hundred ten of these (9%) later developed DI. The risk of developing DI was 20% at 15 years after diagnosis. Multisystem disease patients at diagnosis carried a 4.6-fold risk for DI compared to single system patients. Craniofacial lesions, in particular in the "ear," "eye," and oral region were associated with a significantly increased risk for DI (relative hazard rate, RHR 1.7), independent of the extent of disease. No influence of the duration of therapy could be determined, but the duration of initial disease activity (RHR 1.5) and the occurrence of reactivations (RHR 3.5) significantly increased the risk for DI.

Conclusions: Patients with multisystem disease and craniofacial involvement at diagnosis, in particular of the "ear," "eye," and the oral region carry a significantly increased risk to develop DI during their course. This risk is augmented when the disease remains active for a longer period or reactivates.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / complications
  • Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / pathology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell / drug therapy
  • Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell / etiology
  • Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell / pathology*
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors