Validation of the chronic heart failure questionnaire (Chinese version)

Qual Life Res. 2005 Jun;14(5):1421-6. doi: 10.1007/s11136-004-4768-x.


A striking rise in the incidence and prevalence of congestive heart failure (CHF) in the Chinese population has been reported. While promoting the quality of life (QOL) of these patients is widely recognized as an important clinical priority, there is not a validated Chinese disease-specific QOL measure for CHF patients. The aim of this study was to validate the Chinese version of Chronic Heart Failure Questionnaire (CHQ-C) which measures the disease-specific QOL of patients with CHF. A sample of 110 CHF elderly patients and a comparison group of 64 healthy elderly people was recruited. Structured questionnaires were administered by a research nurse. Criterion and construct validity of CHQ-C was demonstrated by its significant correlation with the New York Heart Association classification (Spearman r = -0.52, p < 0.001) and the Chinese version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (Pearson r = -0.74, p < 0.001), respectively. Known-groups comparison also demonstrated the ability of CHQ-C to differentiate the QOL of people with or without CHF. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original four-factor structure of CHQ. In terms of internal consistency and test-retest reliability, CHQ-C demonstrated a Cronbach's alpha of 0.95 and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.75, respectively. The responsiveness coefficient of CHQ-C was 0.63. In conclusion, CHQ-C is recommended as a valid and reliable tool for evaluating the QOL of Chinese patients with CHF.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Case-Control Studies
  • China
  • Chronic Disease
  • Female
  • Heart Failure / physiopathology*
  • Heart Failure / psychology
  • Hong Kong
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Psychometrics / instrumentation*
  • Quality of Life*
  • Sickness Impact Profile*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Translating