Familial LCAT deficiency (FLD) is a rare genetic disorder associated with corneal opacities, anaemia and proteinuria with renal failure. Here we report detailed analyses on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and the molecular defect in two siblings from a Polish family presenting classical symptoms of FLD and their family members with newly discovered Val309Met mutation in exon 6 of LCAT gene. Both patients displayed low total (2.19 and 2.94 mmol/l) and HDL-cholesterol concentrations (0.52 and 0.48 mmol/l), low percentage of cholesteryl esters (CE) (11.1 and 12%), and decreased apo AI and apo AII serum levels. Low LDL-cholesterol, apo B and Lp(a) levels, and increased oleate/linoleate ratios in CE could be of importance in the development of atherosclerosis in these patients with low HDL-cholesterol. LCAT activity was 10% of normal, alpha-LCAT activity was 0, and LCAT concentration was undetectable by immunoassay. Plasma CETP activity was at lower limits of normal. PCR and sequence analysis of DNA from the proband and affected brother revealed a novel G-->A mutation in exon 6 of LCAT gene, which resulted in an amino acid substitution of valine for methionine (Val309Met). The proband and affected brother were both homozygous carriers, while the mother, siblings and children of patients were heterozygous carriers of a newly discovered mutation. This is the first LCAT mutation described in the Slavic population.