Androgens and Prostate Cancer: Are the Descriptors Valid?

Cancer Biol Ther. 2005 Jan;4(1):4-5. doi: 10.4161/cbt.4.1.1563.


The term androgen-independent cancer has now become a misnomer. Given that the androgen receptor can be activated by even low androgen concentrations or via protein modifications or other protein-protein interactions, a growing prostate cancer has the chance of assuming an androgen depletion-independent state, without necessarily bypassing the androgen signaling processes. It is thus suggested that "androgen-independent (AI)" cancer should be more accurately termed "androgen depletion-independent (ADI)" cancer.

Publication types

  • Letter

MeSH terms

  • Androgen Antagonists / pharmacology
  • Androgens / metabolism
  • Androgens / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / physiopathology*
  • Receptors, Androgen / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction


  • Androgen Antagonists
  • Androgens
  • Receptors, Androgen