Effect of Bacosides, Alcoholic Extract of Bacopa Monniera Linn. (Brahmi), on Experimental Amnesia in Mice

Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 Jul;43(7):640-5.

Abstract

To investigate the effect of bacosides (alcoholic extract of brahmi) on scopolamine (3 mg kg(-1), ip), sodium nitrite (75 mg kg(-1), ip) and BN52021 (15 mg kg(-1), ip) induced experimental amnesia in mice, using Morris water maze test, all the agents were administered 30 min before the acquisition trials on each day and repeated for 4 consecutive days, and on 5th day during the retrieval trials. Bacosides on anterograde administration (before training) in mice, significantly decreased the escape latency time (ELT) during the acquisition trials for 4 consecutive days and increased the time spent (TS) in target quadrant during the retrieval trials on 5th day, and on retrograde administration (after training) bacosides were found not to affect TS significantly. Bacosides also significantly decreased the ELT and increased the TS in mice treated anterogradely with scopolamine and sodium nitrite. Bacosides did not exhibit any significant effect on TS of mice treated retrogradely with sodium nitrite. On the other hand, bacosides significantly increased the TS of mice treated retrogradely with BN52021. On the basis of the present results it can be concluded that bacosides facilitate anterograde memory and attenuate anterograde experimental amnesia induced by scopolamine and sodium nitrite possibly by improving acetylcholine level and hypoxic conditions, respectively. Beside this bacosides also reversed BN52021 induced retrograde amnesia, probably due to increase in platelet activating factor (PAF) synthesis by enhancing cerebral glutamate level.

MeSH terms

  • Amnesia / chemically induced
  • Amnesia / drug therapy*
  • Animals
  • Bacopa*
  • Diterpenes / toxicity
  • Female
  • Ginkgolides
  • Lactones / toxicity
  • Male
  • Maze Learning / drug effects
  • Memory / drug effects
  • Mice
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Saponins / pharmacology
  • Scopolamine / toxicity
  • Sodium Nitrite / toxicity
  • Triterpenes / pharmacology

Substances

  • Diterpenes
  • Ginkgolides
  • Lactones
  • Plant Extracts
  • Saponins
  • Triterpenes
  • bacoside A
  • ginkgolide B
  • Scopolamine
  • Sodium Nitrite