We describe the preparation and performance of high-efficiency 70 cm x 20 microm i.d. silica-based monolithic capillary LC columns. The monolithic columns at a mobile-phase pressure of 5000 psi provide flow rates of approximately 40 nL/min at a linear velocity of approximately 0.24 cm/s. The columns provide a separation peak capacity of approximately 420 in conjunction with both on-line coupling with microsolid-phase extraction and nanoelectrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Performance was evaluated using a Shewanella oneidensis tryptic digest, and approximately 15-amol detection limits for peptides were obtained using a conventional ion trap and MS/MS for peptide identification. The sensitivity and separation efficiency enabled the identification of 2367 different peptides covering 855 distinct S. oneidensis proteins from a 2.5-microg tryptic digest sample in a single 10-h analysis. The number of identified peptides and proteins approximately doubled when the effective separation time was extended from 200 to 600 min. The number of identified peptides increased from 32 to 390 as the injection amount was increased from 0.5 to 100 ng. Both the run-to-run and column-to-column reproducibility for proteomic analyses were also evaluated.